7th April 1861
The 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on the night of 7 April 1861 and gave the total population as 23,085,579.
If you can't find a male ancestor over the age of 14 and who you know should be in the census, then the best place to start looking is the 1861 World Wide Army Index. An incredibly valuable census substitute, this resource gives the names of 245,000 serving soldiers, not just those who were posted in Britain but also those who found themselves in the further reaches of Queen Victoria's Empire. Many of the men who don't show up in the census would have been away when it was being taken because they were serving in the army or navy.
The surnames from the Census are:
To follow ...